Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th Edition (WISC-IV) is designed to assess the intelligence of children between the ages of 6 years and 16 years, providing 4 index scores (Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, Processing Speed), individual subtest scores, and a Full-Scale IQ. Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) might be used to measure the cognitive functioning of a child between the ages of 2 years, 6 months and 7 years, 3 months. Of the 7 verbal subtests on the WAIS-III, vocabulary most accurately measures general intelligence; information measures long-term memory and crystallized intelligence acquired from cultural experience; comprehension measures judgment, insight, and common sense; arithmetic measures reasoning ability, concentration, memory, and math abilities; similarities measures abstract verbal reasoning and verbal concept formation; letter-number sequencing measures attention and working memory; and digit span measures attention, short-term memory, and immediate auditory recall.
The Stanford-Binet is more useful than WAIS-III for testing individuals with profound mental retardation or who are extremely gifted. When interpreting a WAIS-III completed by a patient with Alzheimer’s Disease, it is likely their scores on the verbal subtests will be significantly better than scores on the performance subtests, with a typical 10 point discrepancy. Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd Edition (K-ABC-II) test measures the cognitive ability of children from 3 to 18 years of age and was designed to be free of cultural bias by minimizing verbal instructions and responses; scores are provided on the following 5 scales: Simultaneous, Sequential, Planning, Learning, and Knowledge. Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, 2nd Edition (KBIT-2), used for those between 4 and 90 years-old, can be used to compare verbal and nonverbal abilities, screen for gifted students, estimate the intelligence of people in institutionalized settings, and reevaluate people already given an IQ test. Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) might be used to measure a student’s planning, attention, simultaneous processing, and sequential processing in order to assess for academic strengths and weaknesses, as well as develop educational interventions.
The Slosson Intelligence Test – Primary (SIT-P-1) is used to assist in identifying children (from 5 to 17 years, 11 months) at risk of academic failure or those who may need additional testing; the Slosson Intelligence Test for Children and Adults (SIT-R3) is used as a brief screening test of crystallized verbal intelligence for ages 4 through 65 whose IQ range from 36 to 164, and it is appropriate for visually impaired of blind individuals. The Differential Ability Scales (DAS-II) is a comprehensive, individually administered, clinical instrument for assessing specific cognitive abilities that are important to learning, providing profiles of strengths and weaknesses. It is used for people between 2 years 6 months through 17 years 11 months and measures abilities using a cognitive battery and an achievement, or diagnostic, battery. Woodcock-Johnson III, which consists of the Tests of Achievement (WJ III) and Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III COG) contains 2 distinct, co-normed batteries, one assessing scholastic aptitude and oral language, the other measuring general intellectual ability and specific cognitive abilities; comparing the ability/achievement discrepancies (after administering both batteries) is a common method for evaluating a person’s eligibility for special programs.
Utilizing both observations of infant and child activities as well as information provided by caretakers, Gesell Developmental Schedules measures development in the areas of motor, adaptive, language, and personal-social functions for children between 4 weeks and 6 years of age. Viewed by many psychologists as one of the best assessment measures of infant development, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development is used to identify developmental delays and plan intervention strategies for children aged 1 to 42; the battery includes the following 5 subtests: cognitive, language, motor, social-emotional, and adaptive behavior.